3Dechocardiography
the art of defining cardiac morphology

Research

Role of 3-dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart disease.

The research into the scope of Real Time 3-Dimensional Echocardiography in Congenital Heart
Disease was started in 2003 with a research grant from a local charity.

Accurate elucidation of the functional anatomy of individual lesions is of critical importance to the management
of structural heart defects. Traditionally, the diagnosis has been made using 2-Dimensional echocardiography,
with the addition of more invasive investigations, such as cardiac catheterisation, when necessary. Three-
dimensional echocardiography has emerged as a valuable tool in the diagnosis of children and adults with
congenital heart disease. It provides the clinician with new insights into cardiac anatomy and function in vivo,
allows visualisation of intra-cardiac structures in a dynamic way, that even the surgeon cannot obtain intra-
operatively. It is particularly attractive in children, as the information takes only seconds to obtain, but processed
at leisure away from the bedside, which means that the additional information is available from a study that takes
shorter time. However, its applications in clinical decision-making have not yet been fully explored or validated.
We have a number of projects under way to investigate how 3D echocardiography may provide new information
and insights, and may remove the requirement for invasive investigations. Our work predominantly focuses on
Multi Plane Review (MPR) and 3D reconstruction from MPR based attitudinal planes.

Work in Progress

  1. The Impact of Multiplanar Review on Management of Congenital Heart Disease.
  2. Speckle tracking and RT3DE in systemic right ventricle and univentricular heart.
  3. Characterization of AV valve morphology in AVSDs.
  4. Cardiac deformation imaging in defining cardiac function in the congenitally malformed heart

Publications

  1. Tissue motion annular displacement of the mitral valve using two-dimensional speckle tracking
    echocardiography predicts the left ventricular ejection fraction in normal children.
    Black DE, Bryant J, Peebles C,
    Godfrey KM, Hanson M, Vettukattil JJ. Cardiol Young. 2013 Jun 27:1-9.
  2. Defects in the oval fossa: morphologic variations and impact on transcatheter closure. Vettukattil JJ, Ahmed Z,
    Salmon AP, Mohun T, Anderson RH. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2013 Feb:26(2):192-9. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2012.10.019.
    Epub 2012 Dec 21.
  3. Advanced Echocardiographic Imaging Of The Congenitally Malformed Heart. Vettukattil JJ, Black D. Curr
    Cardiol Rev. 2012 Nov 27.
  4. Black D, Ahmad Z, Lim Z, Salmon A, Veltdman G, Vettukattil J. The accuracy of three-dimensional
    echocardiography with multiplanar reformatting in the assessment of the aortic valve annulus prior to
    percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty in congenital heart disease.
    J Invasive Cardiol. 2012 Nov;24(11):594-8.
  5. Three dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart disease. Joseph John Vettukattil. Heart 2012;98:79-88
  6. Restoring anterior leaflet continuity: the Spinnaker repair of Ebstein's anomaly. Viola N, Vettukattil JJ, Haw
    MP. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011 Aug;92(2):752-4.
  7. Morphology and Morphogenesis of Atrioventricular Septal Defect with Common Atrioventricular Junction.
    Robert H. Anderson, Andy Wessels, and Joseph J. Vettukattil. World journal of pediatric and congenital cardiac
    surgery Vol. 1, No. 1, 59-67 (2010)
  8. Review of three-dimensional echocardiography gives new insights into the morphology of Ebstein’s
    malformation. Tara Bharucha, Robert H. Andersona, Zek S. Lim and Joseph J. Vettukattil. Cardiology in the
    Young (2010)
    , 20:49-53
  9. Impact of Multiplanar Review of Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Data on Management of Congenital
    Heart Disease. Tara Bharucha, Kevin S. Roman, Robert H. Anderson, and Joseph J. Vettukattil Ann. Thorac. Surg.,
    September 2008; 86: 875 - 881.
  10. 1 The Angle of the Components of the Common Atrioventricular Valve Predicts the Outcome of Surgical
    Correction in Patients With Atrioventricular Septal Defect and Common Atrioventricular Junction. Tara Bharucha
    MRCPH low asterisk, Muthukumaran C. Sivaprakasam MRCPHlow asterisk, Marcus P. Haw FRCSlow asterisk,
    Robert H. Anderson FRCPath† and Joseph J. Vettukattil. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography,
    2008
  11. Multiplanar review analysis of three-dimensional echocardiographic datasets gives new insights into the
    morphology of subaortic stenosis. Bharucha T, Siew Yen Ho, Vettukattil JJ. Advance Access published online
    on February 20, 2008 Eur J Echocardiogr. 2008.
  12. Mitral Valve Annular Function in Children with Normal and Regurgitant Valves: A Three Dimensional
    Echocardiographic Study. Bharucha T, Sivaprakasam M.C., Roman K.S., Veldtman G.R., JJ Vettukattil. In Press:
    Cardiol Young . 2008.
  13. A hybrid surgical transcatheter strategy for treating severe para-right atrioventricular valvular regurgitation
    in a patient with left atrial isomerism. Kalantre A, JJ Vettukattil, Haw M, Veldtman GR.
    J Interv Cardiol. 2007 Dec;20(6):555-8.
  14. Defining Ebstein's malformation using three-dimensional echocardiography.
    Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2007 Dec;6(6):685-90. Epub 2007 Sep 21. JJ Vettukattil, Bharucha T, Anderson
    RH. http://icvts.ctsnetjournals
  15. 3-D echocardiographic imaging of double aortic arch. Sivaprakasam MC, JJ Vettukattil. Eur J Echocardiogr.
    2006 Dec;7(6):476-7. Epub 2005 Nov 10.
  16. Correlations with operative anatomy of real time three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging of congenital
    aortic valvar stenosis. Sadagopan SN, Veldtman GR, Sivaprakasam MC, Keeton BR, Gnanapragasam JP, Salmon
    AP, Haw MP, Vettukattil JJ. Cardiol Young . 2006 Oct;16(5):490-4.
  17. The Accuracy of Three-Dimensional Echocardiography With Multiplanar Reformatting in the Assessment of
    the Aortic Valve Annulus Prior to Percutaneous Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty in Congenital Heart Disease. David
    Black, MBBCH, Zaheer Ahmad, MD, Zek Lim, MD, Anthony Salmon, MD, Gruschen Veltdman, MD, Joseph
    Vettukattil.The Journal of invasive cardiology, NOv 2012.
  18. Advanced Echocardiographic Imaging Of The Congenitally Malformed Heart.Vettukattil JJ, Black D. Curr
    Cardiol Rev 2012 Nov 27.
  19. Defects in the Oval fossa: Morphologic variations and impact on transcather closure. JJ Vettukattil, Z Ahmed,
    AP Salmon, T Mohun, RH Anderson. (In press)
  20. Publications in related fields

  21. Pulmonary Artery Diverticulum: An Angiographic Marker for Williams Syndrome. Ahmad Z, Vettukattil J.,
    Pediatr Cardiol. 2010 Feb 10
  22. Congenital mitral regurgitation due to papillary muscle infarction: a case report and approach to evaluation.
    Ahmad Z, Haw M, Vettukattil JJ. Eur J Pediatr. 2010 May;169(5):621-3. Epub 2009 Oct 28.
  23. Role of echocardiography in the assessment of adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease. Lim ZS,
    Vettukattil JJ. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2009 Aug;57(4):389-413.
  24. Renal function of patients with a failing Fontan circuit undergoing total cavopulmonary revision surgery.
    Sammour F, Haw M, Paisey J, Cope R, Herbertson M, Salmon T, Vettukattil J, Rogerson M, Karagkiozaki V,
    Veldtman G. Pediatr Cardiol. 2009 Apr;30(3):282-8. Epub 2008 Dec 4.
  25. Acquired combined immunodeficiency associated with protein losing enteropathy complicating Fontan
    operation, Heart (British Cardiac Society), Volume 89, Issue 10, October 2003, Pages 1130-1131
    Chakrabarti, S; Keeton, B R; Salmon, A P; Vettukattil, J J
  26. A novel use of atrial septostomy and stent implantation in a patient with complex cyanotic congenital heart
    disease and severe pulmonary hypertension.
    J Interv Cardiol. 2004 Oct;17(5):327-9. Chakrabarti S, Brown EM, Salmon AP, Keeton BR, Vettukattil JJ.
  27. The failing Fontan circulation: successful conversion of atriopulmonary connections.
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004 Jul;128(1):60-6. Sheikh AM, Tang AT, Roman K, Baig K, Mehta R, Morgan J,
    Keeton B, Gnanapragasam J, Vettukattil JV, Salmon AP, Monro JL, Haw MP.
  28. Midterm evaluation of biological prosthetic valves in the pulmonary position of grown-up patients. Vohra
    HA, Whistance RN, Baliulis G, Janusauskas V, Kaarne M, Veldtman GR, Roman K, VettukattilJJ,
    Gnanapragasam J, Salmon AP, Haw MP.Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012 Apr;60(3):205-9. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-
    1295573. Epub 2012 Mar 12.
  29. A hybrid surgical transcatheter strategy for treating severe para-right atrioventricular valvular regurgitation
    in a patient with left atrial isomerism.
    J Interv Cardiol. 2007 Dec;20(6):555-8. Kalantre A, Vettukattil J, Haw M, Veldtman GR.
  30. Sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with atrial septal defects.
    Int J Cardiol. 2007 May 31;118(2):178-82. Epub 2006 Oct 5. Lim ZS, Salmon AP, Vettukattil JJ, Veldtman GR.
  31. Correlations with operative anatomy of real time three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging of congenital
    aortic valvar stenosis.
    Cardiol Young. 2006 Oct;16(5):490-4. Sadagopan SN, Veldtman GR, Sivaprakasam MC, Keeton BR,
    Gnanapragasam JP, Salmon AP, Haw MP, Vettukattil JJ.
  32. Sildenafil therapy in complex pulmonary atresia with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Lim ZS, Vettukattill
    JJ, Salmon AP, Veldtman GR. Int J Cardiol. 2008 Oct 13;129(3):339-43. Epub 2007 Nov 14.
  33. Hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in the Fontan circulation: a detailed morphological study. Kendall TJ, Stedman
    B, Hacking N, Haw M, Vettukattill JJ, Salmon AP, Cope R, Sheron N, Millward-Sadler H, Veldtman GR, Iredale
    JP. J Clin Pathol. 2008 Apr;61(4):504-8. Epub 2007 Oct 26.
  34. . New technique for fenestration of the interatrial septum.
    J Interv Cardiol. 2006 Aug;19(4):334-6. Sivaprakasam M, Kiesewetter C, Veldtman GR, Salmon AP, Vettukattil J.
  35. Esmolol-assisted balloon and stent angioplasty for aortic coarctation.
    Pediatr Cardiol. 2006 Jul-Aug;27(4):460-4. Epub 2006 Jul 11. Sivaprakasam MC, Veldtman GR, Salmon AP,
    Cope R, Pierce T, Vettukattil JJ.
  36. Absent pericardium: at risk for endocarditis?
    Cardiol Young. 2006 Apr;16(2):182-3. Sivaprakasam MC, Narayanan A, Vettukattil JJ.
  37. Developing paediatric cardiology in the developing countries.
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2005 Oct-Dec;3(4):319-20. Sivaprakasam MC, Vettukattil JJ.
  38. Is tricuspid valve annuloplasty required in children with right heart obstruction and tricuspid valve
    regurgitation?
  39. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Jan;81(1):405. Vettukattil JJ.
  40. 3-D echocardiographic imaging of double aortic arch.
    Eur J Echocardiogr. 2006 Dec;7(6):476-7. Sivaprakasam MC, Vettukattil JJ.
  41. Annuloplasty of the regurgitant mitral valve after myocarditis in children.
    Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 Nov;80(5):1922-4. Sivaprakasam MC, Gnanapragasam JP, Salmon AP, Monro JL,
    Livesey S, Keeton BR, Vettukattil JJ.
  42. Testicular swelling with pneumonia and septicaemia: a rare presentation of right-sided endocarditis.
    Cardiol Young. 2005 Oct;15(5):532-3. Muthukumaran CS, Govindaraj PR, Vettukattil J.
  43. Modified technique of stent fenestration of the atrial septum, Heart (British Cardiac Society), Volume 89,
    Issue 10, October 2003, Pages 1227-1230
    Stümper, O; Gewillig, M; Vettukattil, J; Budts, W; Chessa, M; Chaudhari, M; Wright, J G C
  44. Safe retrieval of impacted central venous line, Archives Of Disease In Childhood, Volume 88, Issue 7, July
    2003, Pages 630-631
    Vettukattil, J J; Thomas, E; Salmon, A P
  45. Pulmonary vein stenosis mimicking chronic lung disease, Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992), Volume 92,
    Issue 7, July 2003, Pages 857-858
    Chakrabarti, S; Tsao, S; Vettukattil, J J; Gnanapragasam, J P
  46. Congenital coronary artery dilatation, Heart (British Cardiac Society), Volume 89, Issue 6, June 2003, Pages
    595-596
    Chakrabarti, S; Thomas, E; Wright, J G C; Vettukattil, J J
  47. Pathogenesis of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: role of hepatopulmonary interactions, Heart (British
    Cardiac Society), Volume 88, Issue 6, December 2002, Pages 561-563
    Vettukattil, J J
  48. Obstructed hemianomalous pulmonary venous drainage: is intervention necessary?, The Annals Of Thoracic
    Surgery, Volume 74, Issue 4, October 2002, Pages 1238-1240
    Roman, Kevin S; Salmon, Anthony P; Vettukattil, Joseph J
  49. Long-term follow-up after primary complete repair of common arterial trunk with homograft: A 40-year
    experience.Vohra HA, Whistance RN, Chia AX, Janusauskas V, Nikolaidis N, Roubelakis A, Veldtman G,
    Roman K, Vettukattil JJ, Gnanapragasam J, Salmon AP, Monro JL, Haw MP. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010
    Apr 26.
  50. Congenital bilateral coronary fistulae, Heart (British Cardiac Society), Volume 88, Issue 1, July 2002, Page
    75. Roman, K S; Vettukattil, J J
  51. Acute myocardial infarction in the neonatal period, Cardiology In The Young, Volume 12, Issue 4, July 2002,
    Pages 411-413
    Murugan, S Jothi; Gnanapragasam, James; Vettukattil, Joseph
  52. Balloon angioplasty in infants with aortic obstruction after the modified stage I Norwood procedure,
    American Heart Journal, Volume 140, Issue 2, August 2000, Pages 227-231
    Chessa, M; Dindar, A; Vettukattil, J J; Stumper, O; Wright, J G; Silove, E D; De Giovanni, J
  53. Intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting may be a universal phenomenon in patients with the superior
    cavopulmonary anastomosis: a radionuclide study, Heart (British Cardiac Society), Volume 83, Issue 4, April
    2000, Pages 425-428
    Vettukattil, J J; Slavik, Z; Lamb, R K; Monro, J L; Keeton, B R; Tsang, V T; Aldous, A J; Zivanovic, A; Johns, S;
    Lewington et al.
  54. Hepatic changes in the failing Fontan circulation. Kiesewetter CH, Sheron N, Vettukattill JJ, Hacking N,
    Stedman B, Millward-Sadler H, Haw M, Cope R, Salmon AP, Sivaprakasam MC, Kendall T, Keeton BR, Iredale
    JP, Veldtman GR. Heart. 2007 May;93(5):579-84. Epub 2006 Sep 27.
  55. Intermittent complete closure of the arterial duct, Cardiology In The Young, Volume 10, Issue 2, March 2000,
    Pages 156-157
    Chessa, M; Vettukattil, J J; Stümper, O
  56. Endothelin-1 in the rat bile duct ligation model of hepatopulmonary syndrome: correlation with pulmonary
    dysfunction, Journal Of Hepatology, Volume 31, Issue 1, July 1999, Pages 192-193
    Vettukattil, J J; Stumper, O
  57. Intrapericardial giant left atrial appendage.
    Cardiol Young. 2004 Jun;14(3):338-40. Thomas E, Salmon AP, Vettukattil JJ.
  58. De Sanctis Cacchione syndrome, Indian Pediatrics, Volume 30, Issue 1, January 1993, Pages 88-89
    Joseph, V J; Pandit, N; Pereira, S; Yeshwanth, M
  59. Hemophagocytic syndrome, Indian Pediatrics, Volume 29, Issue 7, July 1992, Pages 897-900
    Joseph, V J; Sunny, A O; Pandit, N; Yeshwanth, M
  60. Poliomyelitis and immunization status, Indian Pediatrics, Volume 29, Issue 2, February 1992, Pages 241-242;
    author reply 243-244
    Joseph, V J; Yeshwanth, M
  61. An unusual case of atropine toxicity, Indian Pediatrics, Volume 28, Issue 8, August 1991, Pages 943-944
    Joseph, V J; Rekha, S; Subba Rao, S D; Chandrasekhara, M K
  62. Circumcision: does it prevent urinary tract infection, Indian Journal Of Pediatrics, Volume 57, Issue 6,
    November - December 1990, Page 808
    Joseph, V J; Chandrasekhara, M K
  63. Arterialised hepatic nodules in the Fontan circulation: Hepatico-cardiac interactions.Bryant T, Ahmad Z,
    Millward-Sadler H, Burney K, Stedman B, Kendall T, Vettukattil J, Haw M, Salmon AP, Cope R, Hacking N,
    Breen D, Sheron N, Veldtman GR. Int J Cardiol. 2010 Jun 15.
  64. Primary biventricular repair of atrioventricular septal defects: an analysis of reoperations.Vohra HA, Chia AX,
    Yuen HM, Vettukattil JJ, Veldtman G, Gnanapragasam J, Roman K, Salmon AP, Haw MP.Ann Thorac Surg.
    2010 Sep;90(3):830-7.
  65. Renal function of patients with a failing Fontan circuit undergoing total cavopulmonary revision surgery.
    Sammour F, Haw M, Paisey J, Cope R, Herbertson M, Salmon T, Vettukattil J, Rogerson M, Karagkiozaki V,
    Veldtman G. Pediatr Cardiol. 2009 Apr;30(3):282-8.
  66. Reactive Luminal Stenosis Associated with Severe Arterial Stenosis in the Aortic Arch: Implications for Stent
    Angioplasty. David Black, MRCPCH, Gruschen Veldtman, MD, Joseph Vettukattil, MD. Vascular disease
    management. 2012:9
  67. Midterm Evaluation of Biological Prosthetic Valves in the Pulmonary Position of Grown-Up Patients.Vohra
    HA, Whistance RN, Baliulis G, Janusauskas V, Kaarne M, Veldtman GR, Roman K, Vettukattil JJ,
    Gnanapragasam J, Salmon AP, Haw MP.Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012 Mar 12.
  68. Transcatheter closure of an inferior post infarction ventricular septal defect using a customised device. Eur
    Heart J (2013) 34 (suppl 1): S.J. Fitzsimmons, S. Macdonald, T. Richens, J. Vettukattil.

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